Received: 28 February 2020 Accepted: 13 April 2020
Tri-functional vanillin-derived epoxy monomer was developed through the synthesized di-functional reagent and cured with a series of different types of hardeners (hydroxyl and amine based) to evaluate thermo-mechanical properties of the resultant epoxy thermosets. Through elevating of curing degree by the hardeners, both alpha transition temperature (Tα) and cross-linking density (υ) slightly increased (up to 118 °C and 69.9 mol m−3). However, the highest values of storage and loss modulus (E′ and E″, respectively) were obtained using trimethylolpropane (TMP) in epoxy thermoset systems cooperating with tri-functional epoxy monomer at 3200 MPa and 359.3 MPa, respectively. The sample produced by TMP exhibited the highest amount of statistic heat-resistant index (Ts) (up to 193 °C). Nevertheless, the longest half-life and the highest Td are obtained for the sample prepared by incorporation of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS) and 1,10-diaminodecane (1347 s, 431 °C, respectively) containing amine agents as curing agent. Remarkably, the sample comprising triethanol amine showed the highest char yield (3.3 mg at 700 °C) among the all samples. However, the sample cured by TRIS exhibited the highest elasticity, elongation and tensile strength among the obtained samples (up to 0.48 GPa, 6.56% and 22.90 MPa, respectively).