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Quantification of phenolic compounds in ripe and unripe bitter melons (Momordica charantia) and evaluation of the distribution of phenolic compounds in different parts of the fruit by UPLC–MS/MS

Ana Paula Lopes, Marília Bellanda Galuch, Maria Eugênia Petenuci, Jean Halison Oliveira, Edmilson Antônio Canesin, Vanessa Vivian Almeida Schneider, and Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer

Department of Chemistry, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Brazil



Received: 1 September 2019  Accepted: 6 February 2020


Bitter melon is a source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds and is widely used as medicinal and food plant. This study aimed at evaluating the distribution of phenolic compounds in the different parts (pulp, peel and seeds) of ripe bitter melon fruit (Momordica charantia) and in the whole unripe fruit through its quantification by UPLC–MS/MS using a proposed ultrasonic-assisted extraction method. Altogether, 18 phenolic compounds were determined in samples from bitter melon. The pulp of the ripe fruit and the whole unripe fruit showed the highest amounts of total phenolic compounds, 964.00 ± 15.64 and 918.63 ± 18.22 mg g−1, respectively. It was possible to identify naringenin, chrysin, luteolin and apigenin in unripe fruit, and chrysin and apigenin in all parts of the ripe fruit. These phenolic compounds had not been previously reported in other studies for bitter melon. Thus, the pulp can be considered as a promising source of phenolic compounds, deserving attention in future studies.

Keywords: Box–Behnken; Ultrasound-assisted extraction; Unripe bitter melon; Phenolic compounds; UPLC–MS/MS

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-020-01094-5


Chemical Papers 74 (8) 2613–2625 (2020)

Tuesday, June 18, 2024

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