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Use of a diazocoupling reaction for sensitive and selective spectrophotometeric determination of furosemide in spiked human urine and pharmaceuticals

Kalsang Tharpa, Kanakapura Basavaiah, and Kanakapura Basavaiah Vinay

Department of Chemistry, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore, 570006, India



Received: 26 August 2009  Revised: 17 November 2009  Accepted: 17 December 2009

Abstract: Two simple, sensitive, and selective spectrophotometric methods for the determination of 5-(aminosulfonyl)-4-chloro-2-((2-furanylmethyl)amino)benzoic acid (furosemide, FUR) are described. The methods are based on acid hydrolysis of FUR to free primary aromatic amine and diazotization followed by coupling with N-1-napthylethylene diamine (NEDA) (method A) or 4,5-dihydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid (chromotropic acid, CTA) (method B). The colored reaction product can be measured spectrophotometrically at 520 nm (method A) or 500 nm (method B). Beer’s law is obeyed over the ranges of 1.75–21.0 μg mL−1 and 2.5–30.0 μg mL−1, for method A and method B, respectively. Apparent molar absorptivities and Sandell’s sensitivities (in L mol−1 cm−1 and μg cm−2 per 0.001 absorbance unit, respectively) were 1.34 × 104 and 0.0253 using NEDA as the coupling agent, and 8.5 × 103 and 0.0389 using CTA for the same purpose. Analysis of solutions containing seven different concentrations of FUR gave a correlation coefficient of 0.9979 using NEDA and 0.9984 using CTA, while the slope and the correlation coefficient of the regression equation were calculated. The reaction stoichiometry in both methods was evaluated by the limiting logarithmic method and was found to be 1: 1 (diazotized FUR: NEDA or diazotized FUR: CTA). The methods were successfully applied to the determination of FUR in spiked human urine and in pharmaceutical formulations. The recovery of FUR from spiked urine was satisfactory resulting in the values of (109.4 ± 4.37) % using NEDA and (113.0 ± 4.74) % using CTA. Results of the analysis of pharmaceuticals demonstrated that the proposed procedures are at least as accurate and precise as the official method while a statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between the results obtained by the proposed methods and those of the official method.

Keywords: diazotization - spiked human urine - pharmaceuticals - spectrophotometry

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.2478/s11696-010-0027-5


Chemical Papers 64 (4) 415–423 (2010)

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