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Interaction of antidepressant drug with surfactant mixture in various compositions: effect of electrolyte and urea

M. Alfakeer, Malik Abdul Rub, Naved Azum, Hadi M. Marwani, Khalid A. Alamry, Md. Anamul Hoque, and Abdullah M. Asiri

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia



Received: 21 May 2023  Accepted: 30 November 2023


The purpose of the current work is to explore the interactions between antidepressant drug amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT, an amphiphilic) and Triton-165 (TX-165, a nonionic surfactant) by applying surface tension, and UV–visible spectroscopy methods. In diverse solvents (aqueous system/50 mmol kg−1 NaCl/500 mmol kg−1 urea), experimental results using the surface tension technique revealed non-ideal behavior along with attractive/synergistic interactions at interface among the AMT drug and TX-165 mixed systems. As contrasted with aqueous system, NaCl media boosted the interfacial properties, resulting in increased synergism/attractive interaction between ingredients (AMT and TX-165), while urea media had the opposite effect. Numerous interfacial parameters such as surface excess concentration (Γmax), surfactant composition at mixed monolayer (\(X_{1}^{{\upsigma }}\)), interaction parameters (βσ) activity coefficient [f1σ (TX-165) and f2σ (AMT)], and minimum area per molecule (\(A_{{{\text{min}}}}\)) were assessed and illustrated in detail. Interaction parameters (βσ) at surface were attained negative in each case revealing the attractive/synergism among the constituents. It was found that the Gibbs energy of adsorption (\(\Delta G_{{{\text{ads}}}}^{ \circ } )\) throughout all utilized solvent was negative, which indicates spontaneity in the adsorption phenomena. AMT + TX-165 mixtures show synergistic or attractive interactions and non-ideal mixing behaviors at surface depending on mixture composition. In addition, UV–visible analysis detected peak shifts and a surge in absorbance during the interaction of TX-165 with TX-165. It was suggested in the current study that TX-165 surfactant could be used for effective drug delivery of antidepressants.

Keywords: Amitriptyline hydrochloride; Nonionic surfactant; Interface; Surface excess concertation; UV–visible

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03252-x


Chemical Papers 78 (1) 23–34 (2024)

Wednesday, June 19, 2024

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