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Ratiometric detection of propafenone hydrochloride with one-pot synthesized dual emissive carbon dots

Yuecheng Zhang, Jie Zhang, Lingbo Sun, Rui Tian, and Hongyan Ma

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Analytical Technology and Detection of Yan’an, Yan’an University, Yan’an, People’s Republic of China



Received: 26 April 2022  Accepted: 10 September 2022


Propafenone hydrochloride (PPF) is an antiarrhythmic drug used for the treatment of heart diseases with complex pharmacokinetics and a strict requirement on dosage. Current analytical methods for PPF determination require expensive instruments or much time for sample pre-treatment. Thus, it is urgent to establish a simple and time-saving approach for PPF determination. In this work, the dual emissive carbon dots (DECDs) were synthesized through one-step solvothermal treatment with m-aminophenol and citric acid. Two separate fluorescence emission peaks at 340 nm and 420 nm of DECDs are observed under the excitation wavelength of 306 nm. In the presence of PPF, the fluorescence signal at 340 nm decreased, while the signal at 420 nm gradually increased. We interestingly found that the fluorescence signal ratio (F420/F340) linearly changed with the concentration of PPF. Therefore, a simple and time-saving ratiometric fluorescent approach for the determination of PPF was developed using DECDs as a probe, showing an excellent linear range from 900 to 100 μM. The detection limit is calculated to be 88 nM. It is a simple and low-cost strategy for PPF detection. The content of PPF was successfully analyzed in commercial tablets and in complex biological samples with satisfactory recoveries (ranging from 97.1 to 103.3%), showing great potential for application in clinical research.

Keywords: Propafenone hydrochloride; Carbon dots; Ratiometric; Fluorescence

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02489-2


Chemical Papers 77 (1) 375–383 (2023)

Wednesday, April 24, 2024

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