This work demonstrates the fabrication of a binder-free ternary graphite-clay-cement composite electrode (GKCeCE) with improved electrical/mechanical properties and its potential electrochemical applications as an ideal working electrode. The combination of clay and cement (~ 5%) accounts for a sturdy lamella-like graphite structure, which is responsible for improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength of GKCeCE. GKCeCE can produce an ideal cyclic voltammetry signal with narrow peak-to-peak separation, avoiding high background current and peak broadening characteristics to binary composite electrodes. The aniline can be successfully electropolymerized with GKCeCE. The polyaniline deposited on GKCeCE consists of a nanofiber network, exhibiting the lowest serial (10 Ω) and charge transfer resistance (77.5 Ω), indicating the potential of modified GKCeCE in the fabrication of various electrochemical devices and sensors. GKCeCE is a low-cost improved version of the binder-free composite of graphite that is considered a potential alternative for expensive commercial working electrodes.
Keywords: Graphite; Kaolinite; Cement; Ternary composite; Working electrode; Electrochemical applications